An American Editor

October 14, 2013

What is Editing Worth?

As with all such speculative questions, the answer to “What is editing worth?” depends on who is answering. To me, it is worth many times what I am paid because my efforts help bring focus and understanding to those with whom an author wishes to communicate.

Ask an author, and the answer may well be different. It certainly is different if you ask a publisher, especially a very large publisher. But the answer that surprises me most is that of some academics.

In the past month, I have been asked by three academics to edit their manuscripts. Once the discussion veered toward the money, the jobs were lost.

In each case, the manuscripts were very important to the authors. In one case, it was to be reviewed by the retention committee to determine whether the professor’s contract would be renewed. In a second instance, it was to be reviewed by the tenure committee as part of the process of deciding whether to recommend tenure for this professor. In the third case, the professor was anxious to have the book published by an academic press because the publication would enhance the professor’s career.

In all three instances, it seems to me, quality should be the number one concern. Yet, it wasn’t. The number one concern was cost.

After I made my bids, I was told that my price was higher than that of already-contacted editors who were not hired because of price. As we discussed in “Business of Editing: ‘I Can Get It Cheaper!‘,” I suggested that they keep on searching but lower their expectations.

I also said that it is clear that they think editing has some value, so why, I asked, do they place the value so low? None had a true answer; they had never thought about it in terms of value.

I tried to get across to them the value of reaching the prize each was aiming for– retention, tenure, career enhancement. For each, the prize was very valuable, yet they saw no real value in professional editing help. There was no equilibrium in their calculations. What they saw was that their goals were worthy and valuable and editing was of middling importance compared to those goals. They did not equate quality of editing with achievement of goal.

It is that disconnect that editors fight daily. Novelists often think that self-editing or group editing that costs nothing is sufficient. Few ever think about the books that end up being better sellers and about why they are better sellers. True, a lot more goes into the mix than the editing, but little or bad editing can negatively impact sales, especially with ebooks where a potential buyer can read a sample.

As the professors said goodbye, I asked them to think about the relationship between their manuscript and their future. Although it is true that no editor can guarantee that as a result of the editor’s efforts the author’s goals will definitely be achieved, it is almost certain that in the absence of professional editing the goals will not be achieved. In terms of career and money over the course of the expected career, how valuable is it to achieve tenure? Would you spend the money for an attractive new suit for such an interview or would you wear the jeans and sweatshirt in which you painted your bedroom? Why is editing any different?

Few people argue with the auto mechanic over the cost of installing new brakes when new brakes are needed because the value of having new brakes installed by a knowledgeable mechanic is perceived to exceed the savings that would occur if one were to do the installation one’s self. Most of us view the price for brakes as both worthwhile and nonnegotiable. But having one’s career-forming document edited is viewed differently.

I suspect that much of the problem is the failure of editors to communicate the value of editing well. Certainly, it is a problem that there is no concerted effort to educate people about the value, much like Coca-Cola educates consumers about Coke.

Editors walk the marketing world with their eyes shut. Few editors have ever deeply thought about the Amazon approach to consumerism, yet Amazon has valuable lessons to teach those willing to learn. Amazon spends a lot of money “educating” consumers about its eco system. Ask someone where they plan to buy a book and the answer often comes back as “Amazon.” Even though the same book can be bought elsewhere for a similar price, Amazon is the draw. Why? Because Amazon has, over the years, hammered home that it has the best shopping experience, even if the same item can be found elsewhere for the same or slightly less.

Editors, on the other hand, have not taken the lead and created a “campaign” that has our audience asking first about what matters most: quality. Instead, we have been led by our audience so that cost is the dominating factor in the decision to hire or not hire us. We are not asked to compete on quality but on price, and through our own inaction, we have let others direct the discussion.

As a group, editors have failed to make the case that if a manuscript is important to an author’s career, quality should be the primary, if not the sole, criterion whether or not to hire a particular editor. If we knew we had to take a 3,000-mile drive and that to do it we needed to buy a new car, we would not buy a car because it was the cheapest; we would look for a car that gave us the confidence that it could make such a trip comfortably, safely, and reliably. That is how an editor should be hired; cost should not be ignored but it should be secondary or tertiary to quality.

How do you convince a potential client that quality should be the number one factor in the decision to hire an editor, especially when the material to be edited will impact the author’s career?



  1. I don’t have a good answer, but I know a lot of professors aren’t paid well. The value of a service is irrelevant if one can’t afford it, no matter how excellent an investment it may be. I’m not suggesting editors should lower their rates, but neither should we be surprized that there are people for whom the cost is prohibitive.

    Ruth Feiertag


    Comment by Ruth Feiertag — October 14, 2013 @ 5:34 am | Reply

  2. You get what you pay for. For me, editing is all about quality, as is anything important to me.

    As well as a writer, I am a freelance graphic designer. I have one client who always tries to screw me on price (my fees are already very reasonable and competitive). Well, it came back to bite them this weekend. Instead of having a designer create a newspaper advert, they left it to the newspaper to do it. If was horrid. So I get an urgent call for help. I only agreed to do it if I could charge a by the hour. They had no choice — they had to agree. And they love the new ad. 🙂


    Comment by Vicki — October 14, 2013 @ 6:49 am | Reply

  3. AE wrote: “How do you convince a potential client that quality should be the number one factor in the decision to hire an editor, especially when the material to be edited will impact the author’s career?”

    Boy, I’d sure like to know the answer to that question! With half of my clients, it doesn’t matter: I’m hired by publishers who have already committed to publishing the work, and their own people make quality distinctions (with the only one relevant to me being their satisfaction with the quality of *my* work). With the other half of my clients, it also doesn’t matter: I’m hired by indie authors who are mainly clueless about the realities of publishing, and their work will not sell in meaningful quantity no matter how good it is, or else will sell no matter how amateur it is.

    All of these authors, though, have ambitions; and the ones willing to spend money on editing have (so far) been willing if not eager to be educated. Because today all of them can publish without the “gatekeeper” restriction, and serve an audience whose demand for quality is steadily shrinking, I don’t feel it’s my job to pass judgment on their work. What I try to do instead is summarize their options and inform them that if they want to go high end, then they must be prepared to leap for a very high bar in an extremely competitive environment, as well as have a cast-iron ego to handle rejection. For the other options, I make it clear that they set their own quality standard, which will be affirmed or denied by their audience. In either case, it serves their needs to have their work reviewed and massaged by a professional editor — who costs money.

    I take this route because it would be professionally hazardous to suggest that my work can influence their chances of getting traditionally published or critically acclaimed. While helping them get their work out the door in the best shape they/we can manage does indeed improve their chances of success, in the end it has nothing to do with that. They will sell or not, or be applauded or not, as a result of their story, their marketing, their branding, their publishing venue, their timing, and their luck.

    I’ve noticed that older indie authors who are well-heeled are much more interested in (and understanding of) quality than younger, cash-strapped authors. For the former, all I have to do is demonstrate, by a sample edit and an in-depth, personal correspondence that I will deliver what they desire. Then they pony right up, cooperate with all phases of the project, and say nice things about me when it’s over — sometimes even referring another wannabe. For the latter, they still want quality but are unwilling or unable to pay for it. For these I take extra time to find out what their intentions are, and offer lower-cost options that include a non-editing critique and a solid plan for self-editing. Somebody’s got to do it after all, and it’s better (IMO) for them to learn how to write than pay a cheaper editor who might make hash of things and either discourage the writer from continuing or hamper their chances of success. More than once these authors have come back later, or referred their friends.

    I realize from other people’s experience that some authors really don’t care about quality. Fortunately, that hasn’t happened to me yet. I encounter it sometimes on the publisher side, instead.


    Comment by Carolyn — October 14, 2013 @ 7:04 am | Reply

  4. When I was in college, I tended to do things at the last minute. When my undergrad thesis was due at 5 p.m. on a particular day, at 4:59 p.m. I was sitting outside the office trying to proofread it. I didn’t make it all the way through and when the bell rang and handed it in as is. I was later told that the thesis would have gotten a summa except that it had a lot of typos. The difference between a magna cum laude and a summa cum laude had no effect on my career, but it could have. And at least the thesis committee did care about editing.


    Comment by Gretchen — October 14, 2013 @ 8:32 am | Reply

  5. Oops. Even my comment needed editing.


    Comment by Gretchen — October 14, 2013 @ 8:34 am | Reply

  6. I just say that my fee is my fee, and I’m worth the cost in the quality from me and respect from readers that the client/project will receive – maybe a little more tactfully than that, but that’s my essential message. And that I’m available if they have to come back to me when the less-expensive option doesn’t work, which has happened a few times. (Depending on the personality of the client, I’ve sometimes raised my original rate in those instances!). Life is too short to argue value with cheapskates. Then again, I’m more established than newcomers to the freelance game, and can afford to turn down projects that don’t look worthwhile from my perspective (for which I am very, very grateful).


    Comment by Ruth E. Thaler-Carter — October 14, 2013 @ 9:52 am | Reply

  7. Every client I work with is concerned about cost and quality. In this country, we have a history of ‘bargaining’ our way through any commercial exchange and many people feel they’ve not performed correctly if they don’t try for the lowest cost, but usually without sacrificing quality.

    The academics I have supported invariably considered editing to be a ‘luxury’ option in their process. Having a tenured professor and an attorney for brothers, I have determined that it is possible that their professional perceptions of their intellectual abilities disallow them from accepting an editor as a necessity. This isn’t overt by any means, but in professor-level academic clients I have encountered the mentality that editing is simply a clerical service.

    As far as educating the writing population on the value of excellent editing, I feel that has to be a writer-by-writer experience. To me, this is one of the fun and supportive aspects of working with my authors. The thing that chaps my rear is having to defend my editing quality and rates to authors who are only questioning such things because other editors have made outlandish claims or absurd quotes.

    I am diligent in presenting rates and quotes that fall within what I consider to be global industry standards. I take into consideration the author’s budget, the material to be edited, and the author’s home country. I offer guidance on services that I consider to be most supportive of the author and their publishing plans. I provide extensive support and consults and in-depth education – and pom-pom flinging encouragement. I take my work very, very seriously.

    So, when an author tells me I fall within their budget and they feel I would do a great job, but editor “B” will do it for $$$ less than my quote, I make a brief re-pitch and then bow out. I have had numerous authors return later and advise that their first choice didn’t deliver – and now they face further costs.

    I can handle the client who wants to ‘fight’ for the lowest cost. But, I am weary of handling competition from editors who misrepresent their services or use the under-cut strategy, which perpetuates the myth of ‘cheap’ editing.


    Comment by Maria D'Marco — October 14, 2013 @ 11:25 am | Reply

  8. To me there’s not a good answer except to do as you do, Rich, and keep talking about it. Your blog does a tremendous service in this area. And then we keep making efforts to find the writers who know the value of editing . . . and can afford it. There are writers who are poor and use beta readers for editing and then pay a proofreader, and at least that’s something.

    And then there are those who do none of the above. I can’t fathom anyone wanting to publish a book with typos or inconsistencies, but there are some pretty poorly written books out there that were successful. Maybe some writers think theirs will be the next—by some fluke their book will go viral and then they’ll be able to afford an editor, or the huge publishing house contract they land will handle the editing.

    Personally, the first thing I can do for myself is to look at offers of lower rates and say, a) “I offer better quality than that” and b) (on a more practical note) “I don’t have time to take a job that pays that low.” But these tend to be INTERNAL dialogues. On the outside, I simply say no thanks and move on.

    I also think there is a misunderstanding about the length of time involved to edit a manuscript. Would a writer be embarrassed to discover the price he was offering an editor equaled less than $3/hour? (I have had offers that low.) I hope so.


    Comment by Jan Arzooman — October 14, 2013 @ 11:30 am | Reply

  9. I have found that, in American Society in particular, money is the top priority. Americans don’t care about quality; they only want things cheap. Why do you think Walmart is so successful? Why do you think we buy so much garbage from China? Why do you think news programs on TV are terrible? Because quality costs. Large corporations only care about giving CEOs bonuses and what their shareholders want. As an editor, I have not been able to raise my prices without losing work. Once, I was editing a sports newsletter for a mere $70 an issue. Well, I told the publisher I needed to raise my fee to $100, and he dropped me without even telling me. I only discovered I had been dumped when I saw the next issue in my email, which he had his daughter edit and typeset. It makes me ill. I’ve even gone so far as to look for another career, but I can’t afford to go back to school and, really, my only skills are writing and editing, so I feel very stuck and unhappy. I did find a European company that needed a journal editor, and when I quoted them a price they couldn’t believe how low it was and they were actually insistent on paying me more! So, perhaps it is just an American issue and Europeans still care about quality and are willing to pay for it.


    Comment by Kevin Hile — October 14, 2013 @ 11:44 am | Reply

  10. The best way to combat this problem, from my perspective, is to increase your client base such that you can turn down low payers. Though it’s frustrating to try to get across the point that helping a professor produce a top-notch document that helps him or her achieve tenure is worth top dollar, it’s at least comforting to know that you don’t have to take the work if the professor doesn’t agree and wants to find the lowest bidder.

    I usually work with companies and organizations, but I do count one professor among my repeat clients. I’ve helped him with a grant application, syllabus descriptions, and recently a tenure statement. I price these jobs such that I include enough time for extra communications (compared with working with, say, a production editor at a publisher) and the time it takes to do a superlative job that will hopefully help him advance a very promising career. It’s also a pleasure working with someone who regards my editing as valuable to his work.


    Comment by Teresa Barensfeld — October 14, 2013 @ 12:00 pm | Reply

  11. As for the notion that professors sometimes don’t make a lot of money, while that may be true of adjuncts, someone who’s on tenure track is not making poverty wages. If the editing they need is directly related to getting tenure, a fellowship, or a grant, it’s penny wise and pound foolish to stint on that. The amounts we’re talking about are not out of the realm of reality.

    It’s certainly true that all clients are concerned about price; no one is going to say to me, “the sky’s the limit!” But there’s a difference between wanting to pay a reasonable price versus getting the lowest possible bid, especially on something that is crucially important to one’s career!


    Comment by Teresa Barensfeld — October 14, 2013 @ 12:07 pm | Reply

  12. As usual, this is a very important column. I now know that it’s important to send an email back to the person who turned me down because of price, and question how important the document in question is to their life, or their future success. And I haven’t done this before, but now I’m definitely going to do it. Thank you.


    Comment by Dr. Mary-Anne Pops — October 14, 2013 @ 12:50 pm | Reply

  13. Some 50 years ago, UPS had a series of newsletters, one of which was about “What is something worth.” Their description, as I remember it was, “When you would rather have the money in your pocket than the goods on the shelf and the customer would rather than the item on the shelf than the money in their pocket/purse, that is what it will be worth.

    Value is ALWAYs in the eye of the beholder, Respect is what is in the mind of the vendor . . . respect for what one is selling/doing, respect for what people need or don’t need, respect for their decision to buy or not buy. The respect one shows towards all of these points will help determine the value in one’s prospective customers’ minds.

    Having a flat fee per word(s), hour, etc is not showing respect for one’s potential customers as that it taking away their ability to make a choice other than yes or no. For someone to make a decision they need to have a marketplace to choose from. Yes or no is not a marketplace and it takes away their power to make a qualified decision. To respect a potential customer’s wishes is also to respect that they do not have unlimited funds.

    The best way to meet their needs is to have a flexible fee schedule that potential customers/clients can find a place that fits what they can justify to or get confirmation from others (amd their own conscience is a form of “other”) as to what they want to do/not do.



    Comment by Alan J Zell — October 15, 2013 @ 8:09 pm | Reply

    • “Having a flat fee per word(s), hour, etc is not showing respect for one’s potential customers as that it taking away their ability to make a choice other than yes or no. For someone to make a decision they need to have a marketplace to choose from.”

      Those two sentences seem to be in opposition to each other. I may not be understanding Alan’s point, but it seems to me that when each vendor, freelancer, or business owner (whatever we want to call ourselves) sets a price, that vendor is part of the marketplace from which the client can choose. When I’m asked to bid on a project, the client is in effect telling me to guess what number is acceptable to them (I use the plural pronoun because I’m usually dealing with “client” as an institution made of many people). This is a marketplace reality that I accept and to which I do not attach emotion or opinion, but one could make a case that asking vendors for bids is not respectful of the vendors. OTOH, if a client tells me what price they’re willing to pay, it’s I who must make the yes or no decision, which perhaps doesn’t show a lot of respect for me an my unique qualifications and experience as an editor. Again, I’m just using this as a counter-example, because I don’t attach respect or emotion to the bidding process.

      I use these examples to illustrate my point that respect in this sense doesn’t really go into the financial decisions of the vendor or the client. Of course, we should all be respectful in our dealings with each other — vendors to clients AND clients to vendors. Mutual respect is the key.

      When I work for individuals (in a comment above I mentioned the professor from whom I’ve gotten repeat work, and I recently edited a book for an individual author), I give them a project fee based on the word count and the work involved. They seem relieved, actually, to know what the fee will be rather than waiting until the end of the job to find out how many hours I worked, and perhaps feeling like that long phone call wasn’t necessary after all. (I always include time in my project fee for phone calls or email questions when working with individuals.) I have no idea whether these individuals are looking elsewhere and getting other estimates, so in a way I am at a disadvantage, not the client.

      This is not to say that all my prices are set in stone. If a client said to me, “that seems a bit high,” and made a counter-offer that was not out of the realm of reality, I’d consider it or perhaps propose a change in the scope of the job in exchange for a lower fee. That’s all part of the process of landing a job.

      Respect means treating others –whether clients or vendors — as you would have them treat you, for example, being polite in all communications, responding to email in a timely way, meeting deadlines or giving good warning if there’s a delay (on both sides — I’ve often had to wait for clients to send batches of projects that are late). It goes without saying that doing a good job and doing everything that both parties have agreed to per the contract (or email agreement) are part of respect. BTW, I also hire freelancers, and then I’m the client and I apply the same concept of mutual respect to my dealings with my subs. I’ve never gone wrong equating professionalism with the Golden Rule.


      Comment by Teresa Barensfeld — October 16, 2013 @ 11:26 am | Reply

      • Teresa, Obviously, by your comment, I need an editor.

        In reading all the posts on the subject of what and how to charge for one’s editing services, my comment and previous ones have tried to say that when editing is priced by the word, page, hour turns a service into a commodity i.e that a client begins to compare costs as their ability to have the power to make a choice. It becomes for each a choice or yes or no and not one of what aspects of editing one wants to pay for. It does not “teach” the client that editing is not a simple thing to do.

        There are, as some editors have commented, many different aspects or factors that can be done for clients all the way from checking punctuation to making suggestions on how to say it better or more clearly. How many different aspects each editor would have to make their own list.

        In one of my previous comments, I suggested using a matrix format for setting fees. Horizonataly, it might be columns by different total pages or number of words.

        The first row above the size designation an each column would be a list of the basic functions that are done for all editing jobs and a maximum fee would be assigned to each basic fee for each column.

        For each row additional row above, would be for some additional aspect that goes into editing over and above the basic services. A price would be stated for each aspect.

        How many rows above the basic service would vary for each editor.

        Now, when a client asks for a bid, they make the choices of what type or depth of editing they wish or are willing to pay for. It is not a case of yes or no, it is a case of which aspects they want over the basic service.

        Doing this teaches the client what goes into editing versus just thinking an editor reads it, makes a few changes and corrections and sends a bill. So many comments to this point by editors is that clients do not want to pay $x for the work. Did it occur to anyone that the reason for this is that they don’t know what goes into editing and that there are different levels of editing services?

        Using the matrix fee format will cause some clients to choose more than the basic service depending on how important these added aspects are to them.

        When a client has the matrix fee schedule in hand, it causes them to think about what they need. Sure, they may have to leave off some aspects due to their budget limits but at least the editor gets the job.

        I hope I’ve been clear in my description of what I was suggesting in my comment.

        If anyone wants to send me a list of what their basic editing service would include and a list of the other aspects that could be offered in addition to the basic services, I will make up a sample matrix for you. Since I will make only one sample, if I get more than one list, I will combine them into the sample. Please send the list to me at

        Btw, there is no charge for this as I can use the sample in other ways for different types of service businesses. If you want more information, you will find it in my book, “Elements of Selling.”


        Comment by Alan J. Zell — October 16, 2013 @ 12:26 pm | Reply

        • I just went into ‘scan’ mode for your comment, Alan. I think it was ‘matrix’. 😀 Kidding…

          I use a quote form that identifies types of editing services – briefly – and denotes the per page fee for each. I only charge hourly when extra research is required to ensure accuracy of content. When I first email/speak with my author clients, I ask careful questions to determine their expectations about an edit. I then provide brief, segmented information about the types of editing I perform, as well as some usual turnaround times.

          Since I am ‘selling’ a highly individualized service to a highly subjective client base, I try to use flexibility as a mantra as opposed to anything that would confine my ability to customize my quote.

          All to often an author needs multiple editing services, but cannot afford that full approach. It becomes my job to advise them, without any pomposity and with ample kindness, on how we can create the best edit solution that fits their budget and my rate structure. The vast majority of my clients respond positively to a contact that is immediately supportive of their situation and that underscores the fact that their manuscript is unique. Whether that last is true or not, to that author their manuscript is one-of-a-kind.

          Determining base fees for any editing project is not difficult. To me, the difficulty will always be having to compete with other editors who are not well informed or well intentioned in their pricing.

          Any solid, professional editor I know operates on some form of sliding scale that is extremely flexible and able to take into consideration such variables as phone time, in-depth research, re-writes or ghost-edits, squeeze deadlines, and individual vs. corporate client needs or demands. Working with a committee is always going to demand more of your time. Working with a first time author with a rough draft will always require more involvement than an experienced, previously published author with a refined manuscript looking for a copy edit.

          I always tell myself to keep it simple, listen to the client, adjust what I can when I can, tell the truth – always – and then perform excellent work.


          Comment by Maria D'Marco — October 16, 2013 @ 1:04 pm | Reply

  14. Go to the websites of 10 editors right now and see if you can find an online sample of what they do. Few provide them, so clients have no idea of what to expect. Hell, writers I deal with have no clue what to expect with editors as they’ve never hired one. So, show samples.

    Now go to those same 10 websites again and see if the editors posted a picture of themselves. Quite a few don’t. Authors have little idea about the person they may hire for editing. So, be friendly and LET PEOPLE LIKE YOU. Imagine the following — you approach the supermarket and see two lemonade stands. One of the people selling lemonade is a complete stranger. The other person is that person you saw last week that said hi to you, chatted away with you and connected on some level. Question — who will you buy lemonade from? You know the answer, and not only will you buy from that person, you probably will pay the higher price she happens to charge for her lemonade. See how that works!

    Just my two cents. Getting paid what you’re worth is still a struggle though.


    Comment by Shane Arthur — October 16, 2013 @ 12:27 pm | Reply

  15. The issue with posting a sample is that much of my work is confidential. My clients do not want their original errors and my corrections posted on the Internet for anyone to see. I have a few clients who have agreed to let me use their work as a sample to individuals who have inquired, but so far the answer to the question, “Can I post Draft 1 on my webpage as a sample?” has always been, “No, please don’t.”


    Comment by Veronica — October 18, 2013 @ 10:53 pm | Reply

    • Can’t you just change or remove any identifying information?


      Comment by Carolyn — October 19, 2013 @ 7:26 am | Reply

    • Veronica, I agree with your client re having your correnctions posted on your web site. However, I can see no reason for not citing it as “one of the common problems. . . . ” as long as your client cannot be identified.



      Comment by Alan J Zell — October 23, 2013 @ 11:30 pm | Reply

      • A random person would probably not be able to identify my client, but my client would recognize his own work being posted on my site. The client would see it as a violation of his privacy, even if his name is not mentioned. The authors who are willing to have excerpts of first drafts posted on my site, are writing in such specialized genres that potential clients could be turned off by a sample.

        I am more than happy, though, to provide a free sample edit to an interested author who wants to see how I do what I do. That is usually sufficient.

        I might be able to use your idea, though, as a compilation blog post with example sentences used as “common problems”. That might satisfy both issues. I will think about that for a while.


        Comment by Veronica — October 24, 2013 @ 11:54 am | Reply

  16. […] limitations, rather than quality, the primary decider of whether and whom to hire as an editor (see What is Editing Worth?). We have discussed this several times, and you know that I believe that quality should be the […]


    Pingback by Business of Editing: Editing in Isolation | An American Editor — October 23, 2013 @ 4:01 am | Reply

  17. […] One of the problems with this line of work is that a lot of people think they can do it. After all, it is just reading, and we can all read, can’t we? I’m sure most people understand that there is more to it than that, but sometimes it is difficult to make the connection with the value of the service. […]


    Pingback by The value of editing | The Proof Angel — November 28, 2013 @ 10:27 am | Reply

  18. […] What is Editing Worth? […]


    Pingback by So, You Want to Be an Editor — Why? | An American Editor — March 18, 2015 @ 4:01 am | Reply

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